Opțiunile pieței futures, John Hull - opțiuni, contracte futures și alte instrumente financiare derivate
Hammurabi's Code allowed sales of goods and assets to be delivered for an agreed price at a future date; required contracts to be in writing and witnessed; and allowed assignment of contracts.
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The code facilitated the first derivatives, in the form of forward and futures contracts. An active derivatives market existed, with trading carried out at temples. He tells the story of Thalesa poor philosopher from Miletus who developed a "financial device, which involves a principle of universal application".
Thales used his skill in forecasting and predicted that the olive harvest would be exceptionally good the next autumn. Confident in his prediction, he made agreements with local olive-press owners to deposit his money with them to guarantee him exclusive use of their olive presses when the harvest was ready.
Thales successfully negotiated low prices because the harvest was in the future and no one knew whether the harvest would be plentiful or pathetic and because the olive-press owners were willing to hedge against the possibility of a poor yield. When the harvest-time came, and a sharp increase in demand for the use of the olive presses outstripped supply availability of the presseshe sold his future use contracts of the olive presses at a rate of his choosing, and made a large amount of money.
Modern era[ edit ] The first modern organized futures exchange began in at the Dojima Rice Exchange in OsakaJapan. Before the exchange was created, business was conducted by traders in London coffee houses using a makeshift ring drawn in chalk on the floor.
Lead and zinc were soon added but only gained official trading status in The exchange was closed during World War II and did not re-open until The exchange ceased trading plastics in Chicago is located at the base of the Great Lakesclose to the farmlands opțiunile pieței futures cattle country of the Midwestmaking it a natural center for transportation, distribution, and trading of agricultural produce.
Gluts and shortages of these products caused chaotic fluctuations in price, and this led to the development of a market enabling grain merchants, processors, and agriculture companies to trade in "to arrive" or "cash forward" contracts to insulate them from the risk of adverse price change and enable them to hedge.
For most exchanges, forward contracts were standard at the time.
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However, forward contracts were often not honored by either the buyer or the seller. For instance, if the buyer of a corn forward contract made an agreement to buy corn, and at the time of delivery the price of corn differed dramatically from the original contract price, either the buyer or the seller would back out.
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Additionally, the forward contracts market was very illiquid and an exchange was needed that would bring together a market to find potential buyers and sellers of a commodity instead of making people bear the burden of finding a buyer or seller. Trading was originally in forward contracts ; the first contract on corn was written on March 13, In standardized futures contracts were introduced. Following the end of the postwar international gold standardin the CME formed a division called the International Monetary Market IMM to offer futures contracts in foreign currencies: British poundCanadian dollarGerman markJapanese yenMexican pesoand Swiss franc.
In a regional market was founded in Minneapolis, Minnesotaand in introduced futures for the first time. Trading continuously since then, today the Minneapolis Grain Exchange MGEX is the only exchange for hard red spring wheat futures and options. There are records available of standardized opium futures contracts made in the s in Calcutta.
The first organised futures market was established in by the Bombay Cotton Trade Association to trade in cotton contracts. This occurred soon opțiunile pieței futures the establishment of trading in cotton Futures in UK, as Bombay was a very important hub for cotton trade in the British Empire.
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In modern times, most of the futures trading happens in the National Multi commodity Exchange NMCE which commenced futures trading in 24 commodities on 26 November on a national scale. Recent developments[ edit ] The s saw the development of the financial futures contracts, which allowed trading in the future value of interest rates.
Today, the futures markets have far outgrown their agricultural origins. In April the entire ICE portfolio of energy futures became fully electronic.
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- Origin[ edit ] The Dutch pioneered several financial instruments and helped lay the foundations of the modern financial system.
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InThe Africa Mercantile Exchange AfMX® became the first African commodities market to implement an automated system for the dissemination of market data and information online in real-time through a wide network of computer terminals. As at the end ofAfMX® had developed a system of secure data storage providing online services for brokerage firms.
John Hull - opțiuni, contracte futures și alte instrumente financiare derivate
The yearsaw the exchange unveil a novel system of electronic trading, known as After®. After® extends the potential volume of processing of information and allows the Exchange to increase its overall volume of trading activities. In the New York Stock Exchange teamed up with the Amsterdam-Brussels-Lisbon-Paris Exchanges "Euronext" electronic exchange to form the first transcontinental futures and options exchange.
These two developments as well as bonus în opțiuni binare sharp growth of internet futures trading platforms developed by opțiunile pieței futures number of trading companies clearly points to a race to total internet trading of futures and options in the coming years.